Hibernate执行SQL语句

原生 SQL

如果你想使用数据库特定的功能如查询提示或 Oracle 中的 CONNECT 关键字的话,你可以使用原生 SQL 数据库来表达查询。Hibernate 3.x 允许您为所有的创建,更新,删除,和加载操作指定手写 SQL ,包括存储过程。
您的应用程序会在会话界面用 createSQLQuery() 方法创建一个原生 SQL 查询:

public SQLQuery createSQLQuery(String sqlString) throws HibernateException

当你通过一个包含 SQL 查询的 createsqlquery() 方法的字符串时,你可以将 SQL 的结果与现有的 Hibernate 实体,一个连接,或一个标量结果分别使用 addEntity(), addJoin(), 和 addScalar() 方法进行关联。

标量查询

最基本的 SQL 查询是从一个或多个列表中获取一个标量(值)列表。以下是使用原生 SQL 进行获取标量的值的语法:

String sql = "SELECT first_name, salary FROM EMPLOYEE";
SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
query.setResultTransformer(Criteria.ALIAS_TO_ENTITY_MAP);
List results = query.list();

实体查询

以上的查询都是关于返回标量值的查询,只是基础性地返回结果集中的“原始”值。以下是从原生 SQL 查询中通过 addEntity() 方法获取实体对象整体的语法:

String sql = "SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE";
SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
query.addEntity(Employee.class);
List results = query.list(); 

指定 SQL 查询

以下是从原生 SQL 查询中通过 addEntity() 方法和使用指定 SQL 查询来获取实体对象整体的语法:

String sql = "SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE id = :employee_id";
SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
query.addEntity(Employee.class);
query.setParameter("employee_id", 10);
List results = query.list();  

原生 SQL 的例子

考虑下面的 POJO 类:

public class Employee {
   private int id;
   private String firstName; 
   private String lastName;   
   private int salary;  

   public Employee() {}
   public Employee(String fname, String lname, int salary) {
      this.firstName = fname;
      this.lastName = lname;
      this.salary = salary;
   }
   public int getId() {
      return id;
   }
   public void setId( int id ) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   public String getFirstName() {
      return firstName;
   }
   public void setFirstName( String first_name ) {
      this.firstName = first_name;
   }
   public String getLastName() {
      return lastName;
   }
   public void setLastName( String last_name ) {
      this.lastName = last_name;
   }
   public int getSalary() {
      return salary;
   }
   public void setSalary( int salary ) {
      this.salary = salary;
   }
}

让我们创建以下 EMPLOYEE 表来存储 Employee 对象:

create table EMPLOYEE (
   id INT NOT NULL auto_increment,
   first_name VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   last_name  VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   salary     INT  default NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

以下是映射文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC 
 "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD//EN"
 "http://www.hibernate.org/dtd/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd"> 

<hibernate-mapping>
   <class name="Employee" table="EMPLOYEE">
      <meta attribute="class-description">
         This class contains the employee detail. 
      </meta>
      <id name="id" type="int" column="id">
         <generator class="native"/>
      </id>
      <property name="firstName" column="first_name" type="string"/>
      <property name="lastName" column="last_name" type="string"/>
      <property name="salary" column="salary" type="int"/>
   </class>
</hibernate-mapping>

最后,我们将用 main() 方法创建应用程序类来运行应用程序,我们将使用原生 SQL 查询:

import java.util.*; 

import org.hibernate.HibernateException; 
import org.hibernate.Session; 
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.SQLQuery;
import org.hibernate.Criteria;
import org.hibernate.Hibernate;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;

public class ManageEmployee {
   private static SessionFactory factory; 
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      try{
         factory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory();
      }catch (Throwable ex) { 
         System.err.println("Failed to create sessionFactory object." + ex);
         throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex); 
      }
      ManageEmployee ME = new ManageEmployee();

      /* Add few employee records in database */
      Integer empID1 = ME.addEmployee("Zara", "Ali", 2000);
      Integer empID2 = ME.addEmployee("Daisy", "Das", 5000);
      Integer empID3 = ME.addEmployee("John", "Paul", 5000);
      Integer empID4 = ME.addEmployee("Mohd", "Yasee", 3000);

      /* List down employees and their salary using Scalar Query */
      ME.listEmployeesScalar();

      /* List down complete employees information using Entity Query */
      ME.listEmployeesEntity();
   }
   /* Method to CREATE an employee in the database */
   public Integer addEmployee(String fname, String lname, int salary){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      Integer employeeID = null;
      try{
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         Employee employee = new Employee(fname, lname, salary);
         employeeID = (Integer) session.save(employee); 
         tx.commit();
      }catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      }finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
      return employeeID;
   }

   /* Method to  READ all the employees using Scalar Query */
   public void listEmployeesScalar( ){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      try{
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         String sql = "SELECT first_name, salary FROM EMPLOYEE";
         SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
         query.setResultTransformer(Criteria.ALIAS_TO_ENTITY_MAP);
         List data = query.list();

         for(Object object : data)
         {
            Map row = (Map)object;
            System.out.print("First Name: " + row.get("first_name")); 
            System.out.println(", Salary: " + row.get("salary")); 
         }
         tx.commit();
      }catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      }finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }

   /* Method to  READ all the employees using Entity Query */
   public void listEmployeesEntity( ){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      try{
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         String sql = "SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE";
         SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
         query.addEntity(Employee.class);
         List employees = query.list();

         for (Iterator iterator = 
                           employees.iterator(); iterator.hasNext();){
            Employee employee = (Employee) iterator.next(); 
            System.out.print("First Name: " + employee.getFirstName()); 
            System.out.print("  Last Name: " + employee.getLastName()); 
            System.out.println("  Salary: " + employee.getSalary()); 
         }
         tx.commit();
      }catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      }finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }
}

编译和执行

这是编译并运行上述应用程序的步骤。确保你有适当的 PATH 和 CLASSPATH,然后执行编译程序。

  • 按照在配置一章讲述的方法创建 hibernate.cfg.xml 配置文件。
  • 如上述所示创建 employee.hbm.xml 映射文件。
  • 如上述所示创建 employee.java 源文件并编译。
  • 如上述所示创建 manageemployee.java 源文件并编译。
  • 执行 manageemployee 二进制代码运行程序。

你会得到下面的结果,并且记录将会在 EMPLOYEE 表创建。

$java ManageEmployee
.......VARIOUS LOG MESSAGES WILL DISPLAY HERE........

First Name: Zara, Salary: 2000
First Name: Daisy, Salary: 5000
First Name: John, Salary: 5000
First Name: Mohd, Salary: 3000
First Name: Zara  Last Name: Ali  Salary: 2000
First Name: Daisy  Last Name: Das  Salary: 5000
First Name: John  Last Name: Paul  Salary: 5000
First Name: Mohd  Last Name: Yasee  Salary: 3000  

如果你检查你的 EMPLOYEE 表,它应该有以下记录:

mysql> select * from EMPLOYEE;
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
| id | first_name | last_name | salary |
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
| 26 | Zara       | Ali       |   2000 |
| 27 | Daisy      | Das       |   5000 |
| 28 | John       | Paul      |   5000 |
| 29 | Mohd       | Yasee     |   3000 |
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql>